The LAPPS Grid provides several vehicles for providing interoperability of services.  

At the syntactic level, we have defined a JSON-LD representation that services can use when consuming input and producing output. The LAPPS Interface Format (LIF) allows a unified representation of annotation layers as well as references to semantic categories in the vocabulary (see below).

At the semantic level, the LAPPS Web Service Exchange Vocabulary defines an ontology of terms for a core of linguistic objects and features exchanged among NLP tools that consume and produce linguistically annotated data. It is intended to be used for module description and input/output interchange to support service discovery, composition, and reuse in the natural language processing domain.